Production and sale Extra Virgin Olive Oil (Flower of Tear, DOP “Brindisi’s Hill”, Green Gold, Extra Monovariety Nectar)




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The different Phases of the Oil Production


The oil production can be summarised in 9 principal phases of production and precisely: the harvesting, the washing, the milling or the fringing, the braking, the outcropping, the extraction, the separation, the conservation and the natural decantation, and the confection.


The famous "Giant Tree", the ultra century and the biggest olive tree present in the Agricultural Farm "Villa Carmine"


The famous "Grandfather Tree", the ultra century and the oldest olive tree present in the Agricultural Farm "Villa Carmine"



Before the olives were harvested once falls spontaneously.
This method was abandoned because finishing on the prepared ground, the fruits were easily polluted of mould and bacteria, giving a product of poor quality.

It has also been abandoned the technique of shaking produced by striking the branches with sticks of varying length to cause the fall of the olives, because it was found that in addition to damaging the thin branches bearing-fruit induces to scabies..
Today, the olive harvest takes place directly from the plant, in a manual (hand nibbling) or by mechanical shakers, preventing direct contact with the gound without the use of drooping products. .

The manual harvesting, effected making the olives dropping from the tree by nibbling on a towel under the foliage by hand or with the help of special combs, requires considerable staffing and longer time.

Mechanical harvesting takes place, involving the use of combs, operated mechanically or with the motion of vibration, with the olives fall into nets spread under the foliage is undoubtedly quicker and allows you to minimize the costs of personnel, although it may be somewhat traumatic for plants.

As can be even more traumatic mechanical harvesting of olives produced by the vibrator and vibration networks under the foliage subjecting the trunk and branches to the action of shakers with special clamps that are attached to the plant, and vibrate up to unravel the olives from the tree.

For these reasons, the choice of method of collection is done according to the stage of maturation, to the size of the olive, to the size of the plants, to the type of cultivars and to the need to maintain the optimal state of health of plants and received a flawless product from all points of view.
The optimal time of cropping of drupes is identified in the phase of ripening, but no later than 31 January of the crop of the oil production

In this period the olive assumes different coloration that move from green to yellow, from red to purple until black, and the pulp becomes soft.

Usually the olive harvest is done when it is fully developed, at the right point of the oil and antioxidant content, to get the right balance between quantity, average yield and oil quality.

The olives are cropped and harvested in perforated boxes and taken in ventilated and cool environment for not more than 48 hours and then move on to the stage of washing and then the milling.


The harvesting of the olives 100 years ago

The harvesting of the olives today with knocking down stick

The harvesting of the olives today with shaker with umbrella


The washing machine where the olives are washing


The harvested olives are weighed and poured into a hopper from where a conveyor belt shall return in a washing machine that provides for the elimination of any remaining land, dust, leaves, etc.

Washing is done with clean drinking and running water, without any detergent.

After that the same washing olives are taken automatically from a conveyer belt to the muller or to the cylinder oil mill for the phase of the milling.




In this phase the olives (pulp and cores) are deeply torn through the traditional system or with the modern system by obtaining  an olive paste formed from pulp and cores both crushed.

The milling with the traditional system provide the use of millstone (or muller) with bottom and wheels in polished granite, of first choice, without imperfections and grouting mortar that with their weight crushes olives.

This method preserves perfectly the characteristics of oil intact, but have the disadvantage of the low earning capacity.
The crushing with the modern system, by contrast, uses rotating discs or hammer crushers, which crush the olives quickly until the dough does not come out through a perforated grille

This method means that the fineness of the solid part (core) is more uniform than the pulp obtained by the traditional milling, grinding a larger amount of olives per unit time, but since lacerate the pulp of the olives too quickly, produce a sudden  increase of the temperature of the dough, which if unchecked can produce alteration of the organoleptic sensations such as bitter and piquant (much more pronounced).

The olives are pressed within next 48 hours of crop, after which the paste is ready to move to the stage of grinding.

The muller where is effectuated the milling


The braking machine where is rippling the olive paste

One of the vats where takes place the phase of gridding


At this stage, the dough is gently processed (grinding) in stainless steel tanks, through a continuous and prolonged mixing of the dough from the pressing of olives at a temperature rigorously below 80°F.

This favours the union of oil droplets into larger and larger droplets, such that these are separate more easily from the solid into the next phase.

The grinding must be for a specified time which is determined by experience of the worker and the type of cultivar you are dealing with.

In the case of using mechanical crushers, this phase is essential because it must help the break of the oil-water emulsions, formed during the fast pressing.

Moreover, using the following method of modern mining, it is also, inevitable need for heating the dough to a given temperature, always under 80°F.

This method, for this reason is also called "cold".



During the phase of grinding takes place a very important natural phenomenon which is that of surfacing.

Usually the oil companies do not recognize this as a stage of processing, especially the big farms that do not dedicate time to a stage which requires a great availability of time and passion, but on the farm "Villa Carmine", this is one of the most important stages throughout the production process of the oil.

Through the continuous and prolonged stirring of the paste  derived from crushing the oil droplets come together, becoming bigger and bigger until it emerges on the surface in real "lakes".

These "lakes" represent the cream of the oil, also called "tear" precious because obtained, albeit in small quantities without pressing process, but simply for a natural surfacing.

The "Flower of Tear" can then be retrieved only by hand during the phase of grinding by means of an employee with the help of a ladle, and then be filtered.

The "Flower of Tear" can be harvested only in small quantities in a few hours, hence the obvious reasons that justify the high cost of this product, precious enough to be sold even in pharmacy.


The emission in surface of the oil produces the so - called "Flower of Tear"

The manual cropping and the filtering of the Flower of Tear


The extraction by mean of the traditional presses

The modern extraction with centrifugal extractor


After the grinding, and once the paste of olives is ready to  proceed to the phase of real extraction, which leads to separation of the 3 components of the paste, or olive residues, water of  vegetation and oil with the following systems:

Traditional presses: in the more traditional of systems the dough is placed on the disks of vegetable fibbers (except straining today now made of synthetic materials) and the disks are stacked on carts and interspersed with steel disks to uniform pressure.

The shopping cart so loaded is placed on the press, where pressure, growing up in about an hour up to a maximum of 400 Atm/cmq, makes come out with a single extraction the oily must (the liquid component consists of oil and water of vegetation).

The solid part that remains after pressing mats is attached to the olive residues.

The olive residues is an excellent fuel, and still contains between 5% to 8% of oil, which could be extracted only with the use of particular chemical solvents, especially hexane.

Centrifugal extractors: the modern continuous method, the most commonly used today, have replaced the pressure to other physical principles that lead to the separation of oil from the solid, using the different specific weight of individual components.

The dough is placed in large stainless steel centrifuges, fluidized by the addition of water at the same temperature of olive paste.

The high speeds reached in the decanter, lead to the separation of the oily residue from the must (the vegetable water and oil), which is now ready to move to the separation phase.




At this stage, using the different specific weight (oil is known to be lighter than water) you can separate the must oily in water vegetation and oil by continuous separators with automatic discharge of stainless steel.

This oil is not perfectly transparent, but slightly cloudy, cloudy.

It is perfectly edible, raw emits a very intense aroma of olives, however it is preferable to leave aside a few months, so it can settle.
Foreign substances are deposited on the bottom as well, producing small traces of "impurity".

The separation of the oil from the vegetation's water.


The conservation of the oil inside of silos in stainless steel


After extraction, the oil is then subjected to routine laboratory tests including the Panel Test which allow the classification (extra-virgin, virgin, etc. ...).

The oil is then stored in stainless steel containers or tanks of cement-coated fibreglass, perfectly clean and without traces of detergents, strictly in a cool place, away from light and heat sources.

The oil, according to taste, can be consumed immediately, for those that connoisseurs, love the flavour intense, rough, or, for more delicate palates, may be subject to a natural settling process by which it is left stand for about 2 months.

After this time, the oil can be decanted to remove the so-called "mucilage" or "pose" deposited on the bottom during the decanting, and for the packaging phase.



Finally, the oil is packaged in cans and / or dark green bottles to prevent its "photo-oxidation, capped, sealed and labelled on the premises of the company where, thanks to the constant temperature between 50°F  to 60°F, undergo temperature changes which could affect the organoleptic qualities.
At the end of that process, the product is finally ready to be marketed and consumed.

The bottling: one of the phase of packing



Immerse in the olive groves in bloom some of the finished products ready to be marketed to the public







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Agricultural Farm "Villa Carmine" - Contrada Carmine s.n. - 72012 Carovigno (BR) - ITALY

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